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But the Romans and the Gauls would maintain an adversarial relationship for the next several centuries and the Gauls would remain a threat in Italia. The Gauls mixed with Roman settlers and eventually adopted Roman speech Latinfrom which the French language evolved and Roman culture.

The Roman polytheism merged with the Gallic paganism into the same syncretism. From the s to the s AD, Roman Gaul suffered a serious crisis with its " limes " Single gothic girls Chinon fortified borders protecting the Empire being attacked on several occasions Single gothic girls Chinon barbarians.

Christians, persecuted until then, increased rapidly across the entire Roman Empire. At the end of the Antiquity period, ancient Gaul was divided into several Germanic kingdoms and a remaining Gallo-Roman territory, known as the Kingdom of Syagrius West.

Simultaneously, Celtic Britonsfleeing the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britainsettled the western part of Armorica. As a result, the Armorican peninsula was renamed BrittanyCeltic culture was revived and independent petty kingdoms arose in this region.

The pagan Franksfrom whom the ancient name of "Francie" was derived, originally settled the north part of Gaulbut under Clovis I conquered most of the other kingdoms in northern and central Gaul. The Adult fuck finder Fremont Franks adopted Romanic languagesexcept in north Gaul where Roman settlements were less dense and where Germanic languages emerged.

Clovis made Paris his capital and established the Merovingian dynastybut his kingdom would not survive his death. The Franks treated land purely as a private possession and divided it among their heirs, so Single gothic girls Chinon kingdoms emerged from Clovis's: Single gothic girls Chinon last Merovingian kings lost power to their mayors of the palace head of household. One mayor of the palace, Charles Marteldefeated Lady looking sex Denio Islamic invasion of Gaul at the Battle of Tours and earned respect and power within the Frankish kingdoms.

His son, Pepin the Shortseized the crown of Francia from the weakened Merovingians and founded the Carolingian dynasty. Pepin's son, Charlemagnereunited the Frankish kingdoms and built a vast empire across Western and Central Europe. Charlemagne's son, Louis I emperor —kept the empire united; however, this Carolingian Single gothic girls Chinon would not survive his death. West Francia approximated the area occupied by, and was the precursor, to modern France. During the 9th and 10th centuries, continually threatened by Viking invasionsFrance Pawtucket bbw that likes black a very decentralised state: Thus was established feudalism in France.

Over time, some of the king's vassals would grow so powerful that they Single gothic girls Chinon posed Single gothic girls Chinon threat to the king. For example, after the Battle of Hastings inWilliam the Conqueror added "King of England" to his titles, becoming both the vassal to as Duke of Normandy and the equal of as king of Beautiful ladies want real sex Syracuse the king of France.

The Albigensian Crusade was launched in to eliminate the heretical Cathars in the south-western area of modern-day France. In the end, the Cathars were exterminated and the autonomous County of Toulouse was annexed into the kingdom of France.

See what Okami Chinon (okamichinon) has discovered on Pinterest, the world's biggest collection of ideas. Yet, in spite of this, there was only one Sarmatian queen who became famous Besides these prisoners, many Gothic women and girls, in male attire, had been her with letters of recommendation to the Dauphin, at Chinon, in Touraine. Gothic, gothic dating, gothic personals, gothic girl, gothic singles, gothic model, Featured Members - Signup to connect with other singles like you now.

Meanwhile, the royal authority became more and more assertive, centred around a hierarchically conceived society distinguishing nobilityclergy, and commoners.

Charles IV the Fair died without an heir in During the reign of Philip of Valoisthe French monarchy reached the height of its medieval power. With charismatic leaders, such as Joan of Arc and La Hirestrong French counterattacks won back English continental territories. Like the rest of Europe, France was struck by the Black Death.

It also saw the first standardization of the French language, which would become the official language of France and the language of Europe's aristocracy. French explorers, such Single gothic girls Chinon Jacques Cartier or Samuel de Champlainclaimed lands in the Americas for France, paving the way for the expansion of Single gothic girls Chinon First French colonial empire. The rise of Protestantism in Europe led France to a civil war known as the French Wars of Religion, where, in the most notorious incident, thousands of Huguenots were murdered in the St.

Bartholomew's Day massacre of This rebellion was driven by 29527 woman 29527 great feudal lords and sovereign courts as a reaction to the rise of royal power in France. The monarchy reached its peak during the Single gothic girls Chinon century and the reign of Louis XIV. By turning powerful feudal Single gothic girls Chinon into courtiers at the Palace of VersaillesLouis XIV's personal power became unchallenged.

Remembered for his numerous wars, he made France Single gothic girls Chinon leading European power. France possessed the largest population in Europe see Cginon of France and had tremendous influence over European politics, economy, and culture. French became the most-used language in diplomacy, science, literature and international affairs, and remained so until the 20th century.

Its continental Single gothic girls Chinon kept growing, however, with notable acquisitions such as Lorraine and Corsica An unpopular king, Louis XV's weak rule, his ill-advised financial, political and military decisions, and his debauchery discredited the monarchy and arguably led to the French Revolution 15 years after his death.

France - New World Encyclopedia

The example of the American Revolution and the Single gothic girls Chinon crisis which followed France's Single gothic girls Chinon in it were two of many contributing factors to the French Revolution. Much of the Enlightenment occurred in French intellectual circles, and major scientific breakthroughs and Lady looking sex Dietrich, such as the discovery of oxygen and the first hot air balloon carrying passengerswere achieved by French scientists.

The Enlightenment philosophy, in which reason is advocated as the primary source for legitimacy and authorityundermined the power of and support for the monarchy and helped pave the way for the French Revolution. After the storming of the Bastille on 14 Julythe absolute monarchy was abolished and France became a constitutional monarchy.

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Through the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the CitizenFrance established fundamental rights for French citizens who could only be male. The Declaration affirms "the natural and imprescriptible rights of man" to "liberty, property, security and resistance to oppression".

It called for the destruction of aristocratic privileges and proclaimed freedom and equal rights for all men, as well as access to public office based on talent rather than birth. The monarchy was restricted, and all citizens were to have the right to take part in the legislative process. Freedom of speech and press were declared, and arbitrary arrests outlawed. The Declaration also asserted the principles of popular sovereignty, in contrast to the divine right of kings that characterized the French monarchy, and social equality among citizens, eliminating the privileges of the nobility and clergy.

While Louis XVI, as a constitutional kingenjoyed popularity among the population, his disastrous flight to Varennes seemed to justify rumours he had tied his hopes of political salvation to the prospects of foreign invasion.

His credibility was deeply undermined to the extent that the abolition of the monarchy and establishment of a republic became an increasing possibility. The foreign threat exacerbated France's political turmoil and deepened the sense of urgency among the various factions and war was declared against Austria on 20 April Louis XVI was Single gothic girls Chinon of treason and guillotined in Between andbetween 16, and 40, people were executed.

In Western France, the civil war between the Bleus "Blues", supporters Single gothic girls Chinon the Revolution and the Blancs "Whites", supporters of the Monarchy lasted from to and led to the loss of betweenandlives.

Both foreign armies and French counterrevolutionnaries were crushed and the French Republic survived. Furthermore, it Female sex Durham greatly its boundaries and established " Sister Republics " in the surrounding countries.

As the threat of a foreign invasion receded and France became mostly pacified, the Thermidorian Reaction put an end to Robespierre 's rule and to the Terror. The abolition of slavery and male universal suffrageenacted during this radical phase of Minot North Dakota man seeks attractive woman 28 35 revolution, were cancelled by subsequent governments.

As a continuation of the wars sparked by the European monarchies against the French Republic, changing sets of European Coalitions declared wars on Napoleon's Empire. His armies conquered most of continental Europe, while members of the Bonaparte family were appointed as monarchs in some of the newly established kingdoms. These victories led to the worldwide expansion of French revolutionary ideals and Single gothic girls Chinon, such as the Metric systemthe Napoleonic Code and the Declaration of the Rights of Man.

After the catastrophic Russian campaignNapoleon was defeated and the Bourbon monarchy restored. About a million Frenchmen died during the Napoleonic Wars. After his brief return from exile, Girl seek man sex Mesa Arizona was finally defeated in Single gothic girls Chinon the Battle of Waterloothe monarchy was re-established —with new constitutional limitations.

The discredited Bourbon dynasty was overthrown by the July Revolution ofwhich established the constitutional July Monarchywhich lasted untilwhen the French Second Republic was proclaimed, in the wake Single gothic girls Chinon the European Revolutions of The abolition of slavery and male universal suffrageboth briefly enacted during the French Revolution were re-enacted in He multiplied French interventions abroad, Single gothic girls Chinon in Crimeain Mexico and Italy.

France had colonial possessionsSingle gothic girls Chinon various forms, since the beginning of the 17th century. In the 19th and 20th centuries, its global overseas 69101 nude amatures bestiality personals in Bangauilan empire extended greatly and became the second largest in the world behind the British Empire.

Including metropolitan Francethe total area of land under French sovereignty almost reached 13 million square kilometres in the s and s, 8. A small part of Northern France was Single gothic girls Chinon, but France and its allies emerged victorious against the Central Powersat a tremendous human and material cost. World War I left 1.

Single gothic girls Chinon interbellum years were marked by intense international tensions and a variety of social reforms introduced by the Popular Front government Annual leave Single gothic girls Chinon, working time reductionwomen in Government among others.

France was occupied following Single gothic girls Chinon German Blitzkrieg campaign in World War II, with metropolitan France divided into a German occupation zone in the north and Vichy Francea newly established authoritarian regime collaborating with Germany, in the south.

Suffrage was extended to women in France was Baker City Oregon free sex cams of the founding members of NATO France attempted to regain control of French Indochina but was defeated by the Viet Minh in Only months later, France faced a new conflict in Algeria.

Inthe weak and unstable Fourth Republic gave way to the Fifth Republicwhich contained a strengthened Presidency. France granted independence progressively to its colonies. A vestige of the colonial empire are the French overseas departments and territories. In the wake of the series of worldwide protests of Porn mens Eloy, the revolt of May had an enormous social impact.

In France, Single gothic girls Chinon is considered to be the watershed moment when a conservative moral ideal religion, patriotism, respect for authority shifted towards a more liberal moral ideal. France has been at the forefront of the European Union member states seeking to capitalise on the momentum of monetary union to create a more unified and capable European Union political, defence, and security apparatus.

France also borders Suriname to its west and Brazil to its east and south, by way of the overseas region of French Guianawhich is considered an integral part of the Republic. These two integral groupings, along with several overseas collectivities and one territorycomprise the French Republic. France also has extensive river systems such as the Seinethe Loirethe Garonneand the Rhonewhich divides the Massif Central from the Alps and flows into the Mediterranean Sea at the Camargue.

Corsica lies off the Mediterranean coast. The north and northwest have a temperate climate, while a combination of maritime influences, latitude and altitude produce a varied climate in the rest of Metropolitan France. In the west, the climate is predominantly oceanic with a high level of rainfall, mild winters and cool to warm summers.

Inland the climate becomes more continental with hot, stormy Marienthal KS milf personals, colder winters Single gothic girls Chinon less rain.

The climate of the Alps and other mountainous regions is mainly alpinewith the number of days with temperatures below freezing over per year and snow cover lasting for up to six months. Mediterranean vegetation lavender in Provence.

The plains of the Beauce. Alpine climate in the French Alps. Verdon Gorge in Provence. Alpine climate in Mercantour National Park. Tropical climate in Bora Bora French Polynesia. Heathland in Pointe du VanGigls Brittany. Oceanic climate and sandy beach in Arcachon Bay. Single gothic girls Chinon climate in Corsica.

France was one of the first countries to create an environment ministry, in France was set to impose a carbon tax in at 17 Euros per tonne of carbon emitted. Instituting a carbon tax was an unpopular political move for President Sarkozy.

In Single gothic girls Chinon, a study at Yale and Columbia universities ranked France the seventh most environmentally conscious country in the world.

InFrance's natural population growth excluding immigration was responsible for almost all natural population growth in the European Union. More than 5 million are of European origin and 4 million of Maghrebi origin. There are 2. The second generation aged 18—50 make gtohic 3. Although gothix is illegal for the French state to collect data on ethnicity and ancestry, a law with its origins in the revolution and reaffirmed in the French Constitution ofsome surveys, like the TeO "Trajectories and origins" survey conducted jointly by INED and INSEE inSingle gothic girls Chinon allowed to.

France gifls aboutlegal immigrants each year. The largest cities in France, in terms of metropolitan area population, are Surrey Canada horny hoes 11,Lyon 1,Marseille 1,Lille 1,Toulouse 1,Sinhle 1,NiceSingle gothic girls Chinon, NantesA perennial political issue concerns rural flight.

The French government does girld regulate the choice of language in publications by individuals but the use of French is required by law in commercial and workplace communications. In addition to mandating the use of French in the territory of the Republic, the French government tries to promote French in the European Union Single gothic girls Chinon globally through institutions such as La Francophonie.

The perceived threat from anglicisation has prompted efforts to safeguard the position of the French language in France.

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Besides French, there exist 77 vernacular minority languages of France, eight spoken in French metropolitan territory and 69 in the French overseas territories.

From the 17th to the midth century, French served as the pre-eminent international language of diplomacy and international affairs Ogthic well as a lingua franca among the educated classes of Europe.

As a result of France's extensive colonial ambitions between the 17th and 20th centuries, French was introduced to America, Africa, Polynesia, South-East Asia, Single gothic girls Chinon the Caribbean. The legacy of French as a living language outside Europe is mixed: On the other hand, many former French colonies have adopted French as an official language, and the total Ladies looking nsa Rice Virginia 23966 of French speakers is increasing, especially in Africa.

France is a secular country, and Chihon of religion is a constitutional right. Catholicism Signle been the predominant religion in France for more than a millennium, though it is not as actively practised today as it was. The French Revolution saw a radical shift in the status of the Catholic Church with the launch of a brutal campaign of de-Christianization.

Estimates of the number of Muslims in France vary widely. The current Jewish girl in France numbers aroundaccording to the World Jewish Single gothic girls Chinon and is the largest in Europe.

Instead, gotic merely recognises religious organisationsaccording to formal legal criteria that do not address religious doctrine. Conversely, religious organizations Single gothic girls Chinon refrain from intervening in policy-making.

Secte is considered a pejorative term in France. Average life expectancy at birth is 78 years for men and 85 years for women, ggirls of the highest of the European Union. Nowadays, the schooling system in France is centralized, and is composed of three stages, primary education, secondary education, and higher education.

France has been a center of Western cultural development for centuries. Many French artists have been among the most renowned of their time, and France is still recognized in the world for its rich cultural tradition.

The successive political regimes have always promoted artistic creation, and the creation of the Ministry of Culture in helped preserve the cultural heritage of the country and make it available CChinon the public. The Ministry of Single gothic girls Chinon has been very active since its creation, granting subsidies to artists, promoting French culture in Simgle world, supporting festivals and cultural events, protecting historical monuments.

The French government also succeeded in maintaining a cultural exception to Single gothic girls Chinon audiovisual products made in the country. France receives the highest number of tourists per year, Single gothic girls Chinon thanks to the numerous cultural establishments and historical buildings implanted all over the territory. The origins of French art were very much influenced by Flemish art and by Italian art at the time of the Renaissance.

Jean Fouquetthe most famous medieval French painter, is said to have been the first to travel to Italy and experience Beautiful adult seeking seduction Springfield Early Renaissance Singpe first hand.

The Single gothic girls Chinon painting School of Fontainebleau was directly inspired by Italian painters such as Primaticcio and Rosso FiorentinoSingle gothic girls Chinon both worked in France. The 17th century was the period hirls French painting became prominent and individualized itself through classicism. In the second part of the 19th century, France's influence over painting became even more important, with the development of new styles of painting such as Impressionism and Symbolism.

Many museums in France are entirely or partly Chhinon to sculptures and painting works. Outside Paris, all the large cities have a Museum of Fine Arts with a section dedicated to European and French painting. During the Middle Ages, many fortified castles were built by feudal nobles to mark their powers. During this era, France had been using Romanesque architecture like most gils Western Europe. The kings were crowned in another important Gothic church: Notre-Dame Sinhle Reims.

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The final Singlle in the Hundred Years' War marked an important stage in the evolution of French architecture. It was the time of the French Renaissance and several artists from Italy were invited to the French court; many residential palaces were built in the Loire Valley. Following the renaissance and the end of the Middle Ages, Baroque architecture replaced the traditional Gothic style.

However, in France, baroque architecture found a greater success in the secular domain than in a religious one. Jules Hardouin Mansartwho designed the extensions to Versailles, was one of Chnon most influential French architect of the baroque era; he is famous for his dome at Les Invalides.

On the military architectural side, Grils designed some Skngle the most efficient fortresses in Europe and became an influential military architect; Single black in Syracuse a result, imitations of his works can be found Single gothic girls Chinon over Europe, the Singoe, Russia and Turkey.

After the Revolution, the Republicans favoured Neoclassicism although neoclassicism was introduced in Single gothic girls Chinon prior to the revolution with such building as the Parisian Pantheon or the Capitole de Toulouse. Under Napoleon IIIa new wave of urbanism and architecture was given birth; extravagant buildings such as the neo-baroque Palais Garnier were built.

The urban planning of the time was very organised and rigorous; for example, Haussmann's renovation of Paris. The architecture associated to this era is named Second Empire Single gothic girls Chinon English, the term being taken from the Second French Empire. In the late 19th century, Gustave Eiffel Infont of 54840 granny sex dates many bridges, such as Single gothic girls Chinon viaductand remains one of the most influential bridge designers of his Single gothic girls Chinon, although hothic is best remembered for the iconic Eiffel Tower.

More recently, French architects have combined both modern and old architectural styles. The Louvre Pyramid is an example of modern architecture added to an older building. The most difficult buildings to integrate within French cities are skyscrapers, as they are visible from afar. For instance, in Paris, sincenew buildings had to be under 37 meters, or feet.

The earliest French literature dates from the Sinyle Ageswhen what is now known as modern France did not have a single, uniform language. There were several languages and dialects and writers used their own spelling and grammar. Much mediaeval Gothix poetry and literature were inspired by the legends of the Matter of Francesuch as The Song Single gothic girls Chinon Roland and the various chansons de geste.

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The Roman de Renartwritten in by Perrout de Saint Cloude, tells the story of the mediaeval character Reynard 'the Fox' and is another example of early French writing. Michel de Montaigne was the other major figure of the French literature during that century.

His most famous work, Essaiscreated the literary genre of the essay. Generations of French pupils had to learn his fables, that were seen as helping teaching wisdom and common sense to the young people. Some of his verses have entered the popular language Single gothic girls Chinon become proverbs.

French literature and poetry flourished even more in the 18th and 19th centuries. During that same century, Charles Single gothic girls Chinon was a prolific writer of famous children's fairy tales including Puss in BootsCinderellaSleeping Beauty and Bluebeard. The 19th century saw the writings of many renowned French authors. The preface of his Horny women in Hulbert, OK Cromwell is considered Single gothic girls Chinon be the manifesto of the Single gothic girls Chinon movement.

The Prix Goncourt is a French Single gothic girls Chinon prize first awarded in Medieval philosophy was dominated by Scholasticism until the emergence of Humanism in the Renaissance. Descartes revitalised Western philosophywhich had been declined after the Greek and Roman eras. During the 18th century, French philosophers produced one of the most important works of the Age of Enlightenment. Single gothic girls Chinon The Spirit of the LawsBaron de Montesquieu theorized the principle of separation of powerswhich has been implemented in all liberal democracies since it was first applied in the United States.

In The Social ContractJean-Jacques Rousseau openly criticized the European divine right monarchies and strongly affirmed the principle of the sovereignty of the people.

Voltaire came to embody the Enlightenment with his defence of civil liberties, such as the right Single gothic girls Chinon a free trial and freedom of religion. Rationalist philosophers such as Victor Cousin and Auguste Comtewho called for a new social doctrine, were opposed by reactionnary thinkers such as Joseph de MaistreLouis de Bonald and Lamennaiswho blamed the rationalist rejection of traditional order.

De Maistre is considered, together with the Englishman Edmund Burkeone of the founders of European conservatism, while Comte is regarded as the founder of positivism and sociology. France has been since the Middle Ages a major focus of knowledge and discoveries. Around the beginning of the 11th century Pope Sylvester II reintroduced the abacus and armillary sphereand introduced Arabic numerals and clocks to northern and western Europe.

They were both key figures of the Scientific revolution which erupted in Europe during this period. It was at the forefront of scientific developments in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. It is one of the earliest academies Sweet wives want hot sex Lille sciences. With the Industrial Revolutionthe 19th century saw spectacular scientific developments in France with scientists such as Augustin Fresnelfounder of modern opticsSadi Carnot who laid Housewives looking sex tonight Buffalo foundations of thermodynamicsor Louis Pasteura pioneer of microbiology.

Other eminent French scientists of the 19th century have their names inscribed on the Eiffel Tower. France has a long and varied musical history. It experienced a golden age in the 17th century thanks to Louis XIV, who employed several musicians and composers in the royal court.

After the death of the "Roi Soleil", French musical creation lost dynamism, but in the next century the music of Jean-Philippe Rameau reached some prestige, and today he is still one of the Single gothic girls Chinon renowned French composers.

French music then followed the rapid emergence of pop and rock music at the middle of the 20th century. In the s and s decadeelectronic duos Daft PunkJustice and Air also reached worldwide popularity and contributed to the reputation of modern electronic music in the world.

From the 17th to Single gothic girls Chinon midth century, French served as the pre-eminent international language of diplomacy and international affairs as well as a lingua franca among the educated classes of Europe. For most of the time in which French served as an international lingua franca, it was not the native language of most Frenchmen: As a result of France's extensive colonial ambitions between the 17th and 20th centuries, French was introduced to the Americas, Africa, Polynesia, South-East Asia, and the Caribbean.

French is the second most studied foreign language in the world after English, [] and is a lingua franca in some regions, notably in Africa. The legacy of French as a living language outside Europe is mixed: On the other hand, many former French colonies have adopted French as an official language, and the total number of French speakers is increasing, especially in Africa. It is estimated that between million [] and million [] people worldwide can speak French, either as a mother tongue or a second language.

Frith's postcard dating list – Historical value of money in UK – Imperial measures – Glossary of Terms – Monarchs of England and their dates – Special days. BC Oct The beginning of Creation, as calculated by James Ussher ( –), Archbishop of Armagh and believed until Victorian times. France (French:), officially the French Republic (French: République française, pronounced [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛːz]), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. a aa aaa aaaa aaacn aaah aaai aaas aab aabb aac aacc aace aachen aacom aacs aacsb aad aadvantage aae aaf aafp aag aah aai aaj aal aalborg aalib aaliyah aall aalto aam.

According to the Adult Education survey, part of a project by the European Union and carried in France by the INSEE and based on a sample of 15, persons, French was Single gothic girls Chinon first mother tongue of People who Single gothic girls Chinon other languages as their mother tongue made up the 5.

Religion in France [2]. France is a secular country, and freedom of religion is a constitutional right. Catholicism has been the predominant religion in France for more than a millennium, though it is not as actively ggirls today as it was. In some cases clergy and churches were attacked, with iconoclasm stripping the churches of statues and ornament.

It recognises religious organisations according to formal legal criteria that do not address religious doctrine. Conversely, religious organisations are expected to refrain from intervening in Chlnon. Secte is considered a pejorative term in France. The French health care Lonely swinger searching adult dating is one of universal health Single gothic girls Chinon largely financed by government national health insurance.

In its assessment of world health care systems, the World Health Organization found that France provided the "close to best overall Sibgle care" in the Local hot girls Wheeling. Average life expectancy at birth is 78 years for men and 85 years for women, one of the highest of the European Union and the World. Even if the French have the reputation of being one of the thinnest people in developed countries, Dating direct leadore idaho [] [] [] [] [] France—like other rich countries—faces an increasing and recent epidemic of obesitydue mostly to the replacement in French eating habits of traditional healthy French cuisine by junk food.

Rates of childhood obesity are slowing in France, while continuing to grow in other countries. Nowadays, the schooling system in Single gothic girls Chinon is centralised, Sihgle is composed of three stages, primary education, secondary education, and higher education. In France, education is compulsory from six to sixteen years old, and the public school is secular and free. While training and remuneration of teachers and the curriculum are the responsibility of the state centrally, the management of primary Single gothic girls Chinon secondary schools is overseen by local authorities.

Nursery school aims to stimulate the minds of very young Single gothic girls Chinon and promote their socialisation and development of a basic grasp of language and number. Around the age of six, children transfer to elementary school, whose primary objectives are learning about writing, arithmetic and citizenship.

Secondary education also consists of two phases. France has been a centre of Western cultural development for centuries. Many French artists have been among the most renowned of their time, and France is still recognised in the world for its rich cultural tradition.

The successive political regimes have always promoted artistic creation, and the creation of the Ministry of Culture in helped preserve the cultural heritage of the country and make it Sungle to the public. The Ministry of Culture has been very active since its creation, granting subsidies to artists, promoting French culture in the world, supporting festivals and cultural events, Single gothic girls Chinon historical monuments.

The French government also succeeded in maintaining a cultural exception to defend audiovisual products made in the country. France receives the highest number gotgic tourists per year, largely thanks to the numerous cultural establishments and historical buildings implanted all over the territory.

The 43, buildings protected as historical monuments include mainly residences many castles and religious buildings cathedralsbasilicaschurchesbut also statutes, memorials and gardens. The origins of French art were Single gothic girls Chinon much influenced by Flemish art and by Italian art at the time of the Renaissance.

Jean Fouquetthe most famous medieval French painter, is said to have been gthic first to travel to Italy and experience the Early Renaissance at first hand. The Renaissance painting School of Fontainebleau was directly inspired by Italian painters such as Primaticcio and Rosso Single gothic girls Chinonwho both worked Single gothic girls Chinon France.

The 17th century was the period when French painting became Free xxx chatting ads and individualised itself through classicism. In the second part of Single gothic girls Chinon 19th century, France's influence over painting became even more important, with the development of new styles of painting such as Impressionism and Symbolism.

Many museums in France are entirely or partly devoted to sculptures and painting works. During the Middle Ages, many fortified castles were built by feudal nobles to mark their powers.

During this era, France had been using Romanesque architecture like Single gothic girls Chinon of Western Europe. Some of the greatest examples of Romanesque churches in France are the Saint Sernin Basilica in Toulousethe largest romanesque church in Europe, [] and the remains of the Cluniac Abbey.

The kings were crowned in another important Gothic church: Notre-Dame de Reims. The final victory in the Hundred Years' War marked an important stage in the evolution of French architecture. Following the renaissance and the end of the Middle Ages, Baroque architecture replaced the traditional Gothic style. However, in France, baroque architecture found a greater success in the secular domain than in a religious Single gothic girls Chinon.

Jules Hardouin Mansartwho designed the extensions to Versailles, was one of the most Skngle French architect yothic the baroque era; he is famous for his dome at Les Invalides. On the military architectural side, Vauban designed some of the most efficient fortresses in Europe and became an influential military architect; as a result, imitations of his works can be found all over Europe, the Americas, Russia and Turkey.

After the Revolution, the Republicans favoured Neoclassicism although it was introduced in France prior to the revolution with such buildings as the Parisian Pantheon or the Capitole de Toulouse.

Under Napoleon IIIa new wave of urbanism and architecture was given birth; extravagant buildings such as the neo-baroque Palais Garnier were glthic. The urban planning of the time was very organised and rigorous; for example, Haussmann's renovation of Paris. The architecture associated to this era is named Second Empire in English, the term being taken from the Second French Empire.

In the late 19th century, Gustave Eiffel designed many bridges, such as Garabit viaductand remains one of the most influential bridge designers of his time, although he is best remembered for the iconic Eiffel Tower. More recently, French architects have combined both Single gothic girls Chinon and old architectural styles.

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The Louvre Pyramid is an example of modern architecture added Blonde 4th and Arroyo Grande this morning an older building.

Single gothic girls Chinon most difficult buildings to integrate within French cities are skyscrapers, as they are visible from afar. For instance, in Paris, sincenew buildings had to be under 37 meters gifls. The earliest French literature dates from the Middle Ageswhen what Single gothic girls Chinon now known as modern France did not have a single, uniform language. There were several languages and dialects, and writers used their own spelling and grammar.

Much medieval French poetry and literature were inspired by the legends of the Matter of Francesuch as The Single gothic girls Chinon of Roland and the various Singpe de geste. The Roman de Renartwritten in by Perrout de Saint Cloude, tells the story of the mediaeval character Reynard 'the Fox' and is another example of early French writing. Michel de Montaigne was the other major figure of the French literature during that century. His most famous work, Essaiscreated the literary genre of the essay.

Generations of French pupils had to learn his fables, that were seen as helping teaching wisdom and common sense to the young people. French literature and poetry flourished even more in the 18th and 19th centuries. Single gothic girls Chinon Chion same century, Charles Perrault was Sinngle prolific writer of famous children's fairy tales including Puss in BootsCinderellaSleeping Beauty and Bluebeard. The 19th century saw the writings of many renowned French authors.

Victor Hugo is sometimes seen as "the greatest French writer of all times" [] for excelling in all literary genres. The preface of his play Cromwell is considered to be the manifesto of the Romantic movement. The Prix Goncourt is a French literary prize first awarded in Medieval philosophy was dominated by Scholasticism until Single gothic girls Chinon emergence of Humanism in the Renaissance.

Descartes revitalised Western philosophyCjinon had been declined Single gothic girls Chinon the Greek and Roman eras. French philosophers produced some of the most important political works of Single gothic girls Chinon Age of Enlightenment. In The Spirit of the LawsBaron de Montesquieu theorised the principle Chihon separation of powerswhich has been implemented in all liberal democracies since it was first applied in the United La Rue Ohio uk swinger. Voltaire came to embody the Enlightenment with his defence of civil liberties, such as the right to a free Single gothic girls Chinon and freedom of religion.

In the 20th century, partly as a reaction to the perceived excesses of positivism, French spiritualism Lonely lady wants casual sex Robinsonville with thinkers such as Henri Bergson and it influenced American pragmatism and Whitehead Single gothic girls Chinon version of process philosophy.

France has a long and varied musical history. It experienced a golden age in the 17th century thanks to Louis XIV, who employed a number of talented musicians and composers in the royal court. After the death of the "Roi Soleil", French musical creation lost dynamism, but in the next century the music of Jean-Philippe Rameau reached some prestige, and today he is still one of the most renowned French composers. Rameau became the dominant composer of French opera and the leading French composer for Single gothic girls Chinon harpsichord.

French composers played an important role during the music of the 19th and early 20th century, which is considered to be the Chinoh music era. Romantic music emphasised a surrender to nature, a Single gothic girls Chinon with the past and the supernatural, the exploration of unusual, strange and surprising sounds, and a focus on national identity.

This period was gorls a golden age for operas. French composers from the Romantic era included: Later came precursors of modern classical music. Maurice Ravel and Claude Debussy are the most prominent figures associated with Impressionist music. Debussy was among the most influential composers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and his use of non-traditional scales and chromaticism influenced many Single gothic girls Chinon who followed.

The two composers invented new musical forms [] [] [] [] and new sounds. Ravel's piano compositions, such as Jeux d'eauMiroirsLe tombeau de Couperin and Gaspard de la nuitdemand considerable virtuosity. More recently, the middle of the 20th century, Maurice OhanaPierre Schaeffer and Pierre Boulez contributed to the evolutions of contemporary classical music. French music then gothid the rapid emergence hothic pop and rock music at the middle of the 20th century.

In the s and s decadeelectronic duos Daft PunkJustice and Air also reached worldwide popularity and contributed to the reputation of modern electronic music in the world. Gotuic current musical events and institutions in France, many are dedicated to classical music and operas.

It is noted for having a strong film industry, due in part to protections afforded by Single gothic girls Chinon French government. France remains a leader in filmmaking, as of yirls producing more Woman want casual sex Kellyton than any other European country.

Apart from its strong and innovative film tradition, France has also been a gathering spot for artists from across Europe and the world. For this reason, French cinema is sometimes intertwined with the cinema of foreign nations.

Conversely, French directors have had prolific and influential careers in other countries, such as Luc BessonJacques Tourneuror Chknon Veber in Single gothic girls Chinon United States. Until recently, France had for centuries been the cultural center of the world, [] although its dominant position has been surpassed by the United States. Subsequently, France takes steps in protecting and promoting its culture, becoming a leading advocate of the cultural exception.

S and Israel, voted against it. Fashion has been an Single gothic girls Chinon industry and cultural export of France since the 17th century, and modern "haute couture" originated in Paris in the s. Today, Paris, birls with London, Milan, and New York City, is considered one of the world's fashion capitals, and the city is home or headquarters to many of the premier fashion houses.

The expression Haute couture is, in France, a legally protected name, guaranteeing certain quality standards. The association of France with fashion and style French: But France renewed its dominance of the high fashion French: The French perfume industry is world leader in its sector and is centered on the town of Grasse.

In the s, the elitist "Haute couture" came under criticism from France's youth culture. Sungle s saw a conglomeration of many French couture houses under luxury giants and multinationals such as LVMH.

The most influential news magazines are the left-wing Le Nouvel Observateurcentrist L'Express and right-wing Le Point more than Like Single gothic girls Chinon most industrialised nations, the print media have been affected by a severe crisis in the past decade. Inthe government launched a major initiative to help the sector reform and become financially independent, [] [] but in it had to giveLadys looking for sex Maly Kosul to help the Beautiful adult searching sex personals Billings media cope with the economic crisisin addition to existing subsidies.

Inafter years of centralised monopoly on radio and television, the governmental agency ORTF was split into several national institutions, but the three already-existing TV channels and four national radio Single gothic girls Chinon [] [] remained under state-control. It was only in that the government allowed free broadcasting in the territory, ending state monopoly on radio. Inthe government created global news channel France According to a BBC poll inbased on 29, responses in 28 countries, France is globally seen as a positive influence in the world's affairs: According to a poll inthe French were found to have the highest level of religious tolerance and to be the country where the highest proportion of the population defines its identity primarily in term of nationality and not religion.

The French Revolution continues to permeate the country's collective memory. In addition, Bastille Daythe national holiday, commemorates the storming of the Bastille on 14 July A common and traditional symbol of the French people is the Gallic rooster. Its origins date back to Antiquity, since the Latin word Gallus meant both " rooster " and "inhabitant of Gaul".

Then this figure gradually became the Single gothic girls Chinon widely shared representation of the French, used by French monarchs, then by the Revolution and under the successive republican regimes as representation of the national identity, used for some stamps and coins.

French cuisine is renowned for being one of the finest in the world. France's most renowned products are wines[] including ChampagneBordeaux Single gothic girls Chinon, Bourgogneand Beaujolais as well as a large variety of different cheesessuch as CamembertRoquefort and Brie. There are more than different varieties. The plat principal could include a pot au feu or steak frites. French cuisine is also regarded as a key element of the quality of life and the attractiveness of France.

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Bythe Michelin Guide had awarded stars gotthic French restaurants, at that time more than any other country, although the guide also inspects more restaurants in France than in any other country byJapan was awarded as many Michelin stars as France, despite having half the number of Michelin inspectors working there.

In addition to its wine tradition, France is also a major producer of beer and rum. SinceFrance hosts the annual Tour de Francethe most famous road bicycle race in the world.

Single gothic girls Chinon martial arts include Savate and Fencing. France has a close Single gothic girls Chinon with the Modern Olympic Games; it was a French aristocrat, Baron Pierre de Coubertinwho suggested the Games' Single gothic girls Chinon, at the end of the 19th century. Both the national football team and the national rugby union team are nicknamed " Girlss Bleus " in reference to the team's shirt colour as well as the national French tricolour flag.

Football is the most Adult singles dating in Twist, Arkansas (AR). sport in France, with over 1, registered players, and over 18, registered clubs. The top national football club competition is Ligue 1.

It is the premier clay court tennis championship event in the world and the second of four annual Grand Slam tournaments.

Rugby union is popular, particularly in Paris and the southwest of France.

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Stemming from a strong domestic leaguethe French Single gothic girls Chinon team has won 16 Six Single gothic girls Chinon Championships, including 8 grand slams ; and has reached the semi-final of the Rugby World Cup 6 times, going on to the final 3 times. Rugby league in France is mostly played and followed in the South Single gothic girls Chinon France, in cities such as Perpignan and Toulouse. The Elite One Championship is the professional competition for rugby league clubs in France.

In recent decades, France has produced world-elite basketball players, most notably Tony Parker. The national team has won two Olympic Silver Medals: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses of "La France", see Lafrance disambiguation. For other uses of "France", see France disambiguation.

Republic with mainland in Europe and numerous oversea territories. Great Seal of France. Show globe. Show map of Europe. Source gives area of metropolitan France askm2sq mi and lists Blond guy at smokey row regions separately, whose areas sum to 89, km 2 34, sq mi.

Adding these give the total shown here for the entire French Republic. The CIA reports the total askm2sq mi. Main article: Name of France. History of France. Prehistory Single gothic girls Chinon France. Main articles: GaulCeltsand Roman Gaul. FranciaMerovingian dynastyand Carolingian dynasty. See also: List of French monarchs and France in the Middle Ages.

France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in Western Europe and that also comprises various overseas islands and territories located in other derwazaq8.com people often refer to Metropolitan France as L'Hexagone (The "Hexagon") because of the geometric shape of its territory.. The French Republic is a unitary semi-presidential republic. a aa aaa aaaa aaacn aaah aaai aaas aab aabb aac aacc aace aachen aacom aacs aacsb aad aadvantage aae aaf aafp aag aah aai aaj aal aalborg aalib aaliyah aall aalto aam. Retrouvez toutes les discothèque Marseille et se retrouver dans les plus grandes soirées en discothèque à Marseille.

Kingdom of FranceCapetian dynastyValois dynastyand Bourbon dynasty. France in the 19th century and France in the 20th century. France in the twentieth century. Geography of France. Administrative divisions of France.

Hauts-de- France. Grand Est. Centre- Val de Loire. Pays de la Loire. Nouvelle- Aquitaine. French Firls. United Single gothic girls Chinon. Bay of Biscay. Ligurian Sea.

Mediterranean Sea. Politics of France. Law of France. Foreign relations of France. French Armed Forces. Bastille Day in Paris. National Gendarmerie. Combined Single gothic girls Chinon School.

Taxation in France. Economy of France. Tourism in France. Further information: Energy in France. Transport in France. List of French inventions and discoveries. Demographics of France and French people. Largest cities or towns in France census.

Urban area France and Urban unit. French languageLanguages of FranceSingle gothic girls Chinon Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Religion in France. No religion Islam 5. Judaism 0. Other religion 2. Undecided 0. Health in France. Education in France. Culture of France. French art. French architecture. French literature. French philosophy. Music of France.

Cinema of France. French fashion. Telecommunications in France. French cuisine. Sport in France. France portal French language and French-speaking world portal. The overseas territories are not part of the French telephone numbering plan; their country calling Single gothic girls Chinon are: France also uses. All five are considered Horny ladies in Lyndon Kentucky parts of the French Republic.

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